A few years ago, I discovered that universal gravitation is caused by the residual effect of the strong nuclear force beyond the atomic nuclei of all matter particles. Subsequently, I found that Newton’s first and third laws of motion are basically the same and are unified under the fourth fundamental force of nature, which is the gravitational force that comes from the residual effect of the first fundamental force of nature (strong nuclear force).

The gravitational force is directly proportional to mass of a body, which is the most important thing in the three laws of motion:

a) The mass of a body is the inertia that defines the first law of motion.

b) An accelerating mass is the force that defines the second law of motion.

c) The mass of a body provides the equal and opposite reaction to an external force, which is what defines the third law of motion.

Mass is what unifies the three laws of motion and the mass of a body is directly proportional to its gravitational force. So, it became clearer why the same man that first observed the law of universal gravitation happens to be the same person, who came up with the ideas of the three laws of motion considering the importance of universal gravitation in the three laws of motion. Even though Isaac Newton was the first person to discover that there was a law of universal but he could not explain what causes universal gravitation. He was also unable to explain what causes inertia in his laws of motion because the basic concept of quantum physics and the structure of matter had not yet been properly developed in the days of Isaac Newton (25 December 1642-20 March 1727).

Moreover, most of Newton’s ideas behind the formulation of the three laws of motion were done by scaling relativity phenomena down to infinitesimal sizes through the mathematical concept of calculus, which measures the rates of change such as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Based on this “calculus” approach, Isaac Newton thought that time flows at an unchanging rate everywhere in the universe.

Over a century later, Albert Einstein’s (14 March 1879- 18 April 1955) recent theories of relativity proved that the rate time flows depends on the relative motion between observers in space and the strength of acceleration or gravitational forces between them.

Explicitly, recent theories of relativity confirm that all movements in space-time are relativity events, which are normally dominated by the gravitational forces that constitute the fourth fundamental force of nature. Although, the gravitational forces play the most significant role in the events of relative motions in space-time but the frictional forces (including friction due to air resistance) from electromagnetic interactions (physical) of the second fundamental force of nature also contribute significantly to relative motion in space.For example, it is due to the effects of frictional forces that a book that is sliding on a table eventually slows down until it comes to a rest state. Otherwise, the book will continue its motion in the same direction until an external force causes a change in its motion.

Today, there is a much better understanding of the basic concepts of relativity and the quantum mechanics required for predicting the behavior of matter particles in all phenomena. From this modern day view point, let us now consider a simpler alternative approach for reviewing the philosophical foundation of Newton’s three laws of motion by reducing the scale of all relativity phenomena down to sub-microscopic or quantum range.

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** QUANTUM MECHANICS REVIEW OF THE THREE LAWS OF MOTION **

In the past, people once erroneously believed that a moving object would eventually come to a rest position if left to itself until Isaac Newton proved this notion to be wrong. In addition, many people once thought that a force was required to keep an object in motion but Isaac Newton proved that a force is not required to keep an object in motion. On the contrary, a force is required to slow down a moving object or bring it to rest state; otherwise, it will keep moving in uniform motion forever. If you could launch a rocket into a region in space that is far from all gravitational and frictional influences, the rocket will continue its motion forever in the same direction at constant speed without stopping.

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**Newton’s First and Third Laws Of Motion**

According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force. This is usually considered as the definition of

**inertia.**

**What is “Inertia”?**It refers to the natural tendency of objects to resist changes to their state of motion. In physics, “inertia” is the resistance with which a body by virtue of its own mass opposes a change in its velocity.

**So, what is the cause of Inerti**a

**?**Inertia is the equal and opposite reaction that is equivalent to the mass of a body in order to resist a change of motion by an external force. From the modern day view point of quantum mechanics, the primary cause of inertia is the gravitational pull from the coalition of all matter particles of a body in order to produce an equal and opposite reaction to resist a change by an external force regardless of the magnetic nature of the external force in the field of the four fundamental forces of nature. The basis of Newton’s third law of motion is this resistance that comes from the mass of a body as a reaction that opposes a change of its state of motion by an external force. Newton’s third law of motion states that;

**“For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”**

The equal and opposite reaction to the action of an external force on a body is the reciprocal gravitational pull from the mass of a body in form of what is called inertia.

Let us recall from my previous blog posts that the mass of matter primarily originates from the strong force (first fundamental force) that is revealed beyond the nuclei of matter particles through the gravitational force, which is the fourth fundamental force of nature. As a residue of the electrically neutral strong nuclear force that pulls everything unconditionally, the gravitational force in matter particles also pulls every external thing unconditionally regardless of polarities of an external force or mass. In the light of these new discoveries, the definition of inertia can be modified from the view point of quantum mechanics;

**“Inertia” can be better re-defined from a quantum mechanics approach, as the gravitational pull from all the matter particles in a mass, which produces an equal and opposite reaction to external changes from the magnetic field(s) of any of the four fundamental forces of nature.**

The parallel of principle of the reaction to an external force by inertia or the mass of a body can be better understood from the biblical principle that teaches a person to love his neighbor as himself.

Paradoxically, the equal and opposite reaction that creates a natural tendency in matter particles to oppose changes to their state of motion is actually borne out of the mutual affection that keeps everything in balance in their space-time orbit! As I previously explained in my blog concerning the “four fundamental forces of nature, the gravitational force is the natural affection that keeps all heavenly bodies together in space orbit as one family, as a parallel of the fourth biblical description of love that is translated from the Greek word “storge”. This Greek biblical word for the describing the fourth kind of “love” describes the natural affection between members of the same family. Biblically, the residual nature of God’s unconditional love causes all creatures to gravitate towards one another as members of the same family of God’s creatures. Similarly, the gravitational force is the residual magnetism of the strong nuclear force beyond the nucleus, which causes all matter particles in space-time to gravitate towards each other.

**‘Beloved, let us love one another; for love is of God; and every one that loves is born of God, and knows God.’ (1John 4:7)**

As a type of the residual nature of the unconditional love of God that is without any bias, the gravitational force that comes from the residual nature of the strong force always attracts everything in all directions. So, gravity is not necessarily the force that draws smaller objects to larger ones but it is an essential property of all matter particles with mass, which causes them to exert an unconditional mutual force of affection on each other. “

**For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”**
A heavier mass regardless of its size can only pull all the matter particles that form the mass of a lighter body while the lighter mass uses its inertia to pull a corresponding amount of its matter particles from the heavier mass, as an equal and opposite reaction. So, gravity is not one object pulling another but it is a mutual force of affection on each other because any two masses exert a mutual pull. If object A exerts a force on object B, then object B also exerts an equal force on object A. This is nature’s reminder of the second most natural expression of the unified field of all the laws of nature, which is love your neighbour as yourself, which means the bigger you are, the more natural affection you should exhibit.

**‘And the second is like, namely this, Thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.’ (Mark 12: 31).**

As a type of yourself, you use the gravitational force that is equivalent to the mass of your body to reciprocate your neighbor’s love, whose affection is a type of an external force such as the gravitational pull from a neighboring body in space. If the external force in form of gravitational pull from a neighboring body is greater than the gravitational pull from the inertia of your body, a change in the state of your motion will occur, which would pull you towards the affection of the external force. This pull that brings you closer to the external force is the acceleration due to changes in the state of your motion.

Naturally, the object with a heavier mass possesses more inertia such that it would therefore exert a greater pull of gravity or natural affection in excess of the mass of the lighter body. In other words, the difference of the net inertial pull due to the additional matter particles of the heavier mass is what causes the lighter mass to move towards the heavier mass in universal gravitation. This acceleration of the lighter mass is what compensates the equal and opposite reaction that balances the difference in inertial pull between the matter particles of the heavier mass and the lighter mass. Hence, the inertia of the heavier mass above lighter mass is what causes the smaller mass to move closer to the heavier mass.

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**NEWTON’s Second Law Of Motion**

Generally, the movement of bodies during interactions will usually depend on the inertia of the bodies exchanging forces. So, a more massive object has a greater tendency to resist changes in its state of motion in comparison with a lighter mass. Except if another external force is involved, the illustration above also indicates that there will be no change in the movement of two bodies exerting gravitational pull on each other if the matter particles that form the mass of the two bodies are in equilibrium (equal). This is the basis of Newton’s second law of motion, which explains how the velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force. Typical examples of external forces that are often present are the frictional forces due to the electromagnetic interactions that are classified under nature’s second fundamental forces (second type of magnetism).

With reference to the second law of motion, an external force will cause a change in velocity of a mass just as a change in velocity of a mass will produce a force. Therefore, the second law of motion defines a force as a mass that changes its velocity and this rate of change of velocity within a specified period of time is called acceleration.

In a literal sense, acceleration is the change of velocity either in form of a push or pull. For an object with a constant mass

**m**, the second law of motion states that the force**F**is the product of the object's mass and its acceleration**a**: Force = mass * acceleration
The second law of motion also defines a force as a change in

**momentum**(mass times velocity) within a specified period of time. Force = mass * rate of change of velocity within a specified period of time.
A force by literal definition is a change in momentum due to a mass that changes its velocity either in form of a push or pull (accelerating mass). Forces only exist due to the interactions between two objects or more and all observable interactions in the universe are caused by the influence of one or more of the four types of magnetism, which are also known as the four fundamental forces of nature. Every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state through the interactions with any of the four types of magnetism that are called the four fundamental forces of nature. Changes caused by the interactions with the field of any of these four types of magnetism results in the change in the velocity of the mass of an object in form of a push or pull, otherwise described as acceleration.

Therefore,

**a force**from a quantum physics perspective**can be better re-defined as a push or pull due to a change in the magnetic field from any of the four types of magnetism, which are also called the four fundamental forces of nature.**
References from my book titled; Unified Field Theory Confirmed With New Scientific Discoveries!! (New Editions now available on ISBNs:

**978-0-9569702-6-8**and**978-0-9569702-8-2)**
Stay tuned……